Reducing CO2 emissions for passenger cars in Europe

Electric car legislation

CO2 passenger car legislation in Europe

If you want to reduce global warming emissions, we should be looking at how to cut carbon dioxide produced by motor vehicles.

Back in 2007, the car industry and the European Union negotiated a voluntary agreement just a few years ago to reduce the emissions from 240 grams per km. Click here to read more.  But the car industry discovered that more money could be made by selling bigger cars and the agreements seemed to be thrown out of the window.

After a year, the emission was 160 grams per kilometer, and there’s no chance of reaching it. We need firm legal action, some firm proposals to reduce those emissions down to 140 to 120 and up to 100.

This will put pressure on the car industry, and they can do it because there’s an EU legislation already existing to reduce carbon dioxide emission. It seems hard to obtain, but experts around the world show how the car industry can produce significant reductions in carbon dioxide, virtually overnight. Implementation of such laws are vital for the future of our planet.

 

The Huge Environmental Impact of Cars

From Visually.

EU commission is being aggressive throughout the year, last 2015, there’s a new policy that the commission plans to reduce carbon dioxide emission by one-third by the year 2030 in three key industries. The three industries are automotive, housing, and agriculture. EU Commission presented justification the needs to cut CO2 emissions, but it requires technologies and investment to meet this ambition.

Its almost certain your requirements for car industry will spark serious discussion between automakers, environmentalist, and European policy makers. The carmakers already managed to cut CO2 emissions by 30% over the last two decades. Currently, car makers are obliged to cut carbon dioxide emissions to 95 grams of carbon dioxide per one kilometer by the year 2021. They are still required to reduce 70 or 80 grams per kilometer by 2025.

According to European motor industry representatives, it is simply impossible to cut CO2 emissions by additional 30% in less than one decade. The car makers fear that the new CO2 emission would require them to invest them significantly to new technologies. Over the last 20 years, the car manufacturers managed to cut carbon dioxide emissions mainly due to improvements in internal combustion engines technologies.

However, to meet new requirements, car manufacturers would need to up their spending on new technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles. Even though EU provides 80 billion euros to support its one of the R&D programs.

Car makers fear that the support may not be enough, and they need to up their own R&D spending significantly as well. However, there is a bright side of these requirements for component suppliers. Last 2013, European automotive industries and trade industries also include that component purchases. Representatives from 30 to 40% of current industry cost, so in case car makers are developing new technologies, this would be beneficial for component suppliers such as Bosch and Continental.

Moreover, unlike car makers, component producers are able to pass the cost incurred to the end consumers. So as a result of CO2 strict requirements, we may witness the increasing bargaining power of component suppliers in the European automotive industry supply chain.

Now some countries in Europe are also giving grants and financial schemes to companies who decide to go green. In Germany for example the government is giving a € 1bn incentive package for electric car purchases. In Malta, another European country, the government will give €4000 to anyone who purchase a 100% electric car. There was a huge interest for this scheme both in Malta and in Germany and companies to Greenr taxi  company in Malta took full advantage and set up companies based on 100% electric vehicles.

The Law Concerning Electronic Signatures

The Law Concerning Electronic Signatures

When you use an electronic signature there are legal ramifications, today with more and more business being conducted online e-signatures are more common.  E-signatures will make up part of your electronic records and the procedures implemented in your office.  They are legally enforceable and carry the same ramifications as a hard copy signature.  The e-signature makes the electronic document legal and binding.

The Laws

There are laws in place that govern the use and application of e-signature systems.  There are two regulations were put in place by the Uniform Electronic Transaction Act or UETA.  The other regulation is the Electronic Signatures in Global and Nation Commerce Act or more commonly called ESIGN.  Most states have started using these laws.  This has changed the way that electronic transactions are conducted while still making convenient and secure.

Signing Contracts

These laws were put in place so signatures would follow a specific legal structure.  Now electronic signatures have the same legal value as traditional hand written documents.  A document that has been signed electronically cannot be legally voided because it is in an electronic form.  A document with an electronic signature, also cannot be denied because of its format.  Contracts drawn either electronic documents or traditional paper are both considered legally binding.

Unlike a physical signature an electronic signature doesn’t require letters or some type of scribbling.  Under the UETA and ESIGN guidelines your documents are considered signed if they have an electronic symbol or sound.  The document is also legal and binding if it went through an electronic process indicating your intent to agree with the contract or document.  Electronic signatures can be a cryptographic symbol or electronic name that was authorized by you.

E-Signature Software

The signature that will be used in the document must be associated or attached to the document that needs to be signed.  It must also be captured with the right electronic signature software that keeps records of the captured signature.  The software needs to make a report of the signature and add it to the record.  The software program acts as the guarantor and needs to maintain timestamps, serial number or some other method to track the signatures they process.  If these conditions aren’t followed it may invalidate your signature.

Many businesses are now using e-signature software and it makes paperwork more efficient, but reliable software is a must.  Here is a video that explains all the legal ramifications of using e-signatures.

Renewable Energy Directive – European Commission

Renewable Energy Directive - European Commission

The Renewable Energy Directive is there to establish overall policy for the production and promotion of renewable energy within the European Union.  The directive requires EU members to switch to at least 20% renewable energy to meet energy needs by the year 2020.  This needs to be achieved through each member hitting their individual targets.  Also  EU nations also must ensure that at minimum 10% of transportation runs on renewable sources as well by 2020.

The Directive lays out specific national renewable targets for each country.  It does take into account how far along each country is on the way to renewable energy sources.  For example Malta only has to hit a target of 10% but Sweden will hit a target of 49% of renewable energy.  Each country sets out how they will meet these targets and how they will go about it in the national renewable energy action plans.

Progress

Every two year the progress towards each countries national target is measured and published in progress reports.  There are also cooperation mechanisms in place among the EU countries and some countries outside of the EU as well so they can meet their renewable energy targets.  Some ways this cooperation happens is transfers of renewable energy, joint projects in renewable energy projects and renewable support schemes.

Climate Change

Most of the European Union energy policies are with the goal of limiting global temperature changes to roughly 2C above the average temperature of the earth prior to the Industrial Age.  The 2C is viewed as the upper limit on global temperature change that will offset global warming.  Some scientist don’t believe that this is a big enough measure to stave off climate change.  The UK’s leading scientist on the subject, Kevin Anderson believes that a change in temperature of 1C is really the upper limit.

Biofuels, bioliquids, solar power, and wind power are all instrumental in getting the European Union nations to meet their targets.  Biofuels are being used to meet the transportation quotas.  The Renewable Energy Directive have spelled out the biofuels sustainability criteria, that biofuels must be produced and used in the EU to ensure that they remain environmentally friendly.

Jobs

The renewable energy sector has also produced thousands of new jobs all across the European Union with the number increasing steadily over the past decade.  In 2005 there were 230,000 jobs in renewable energy while in 2009 that number had increased to over half a million.  Renewable energy is not only good for the environment it has proved beneficial to the economy as well.